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Question - 1 : ছায়াপথ তার নিজ অক্ষকে কেন্দ্র করে ঘুরে আসতে যে সময় লাগে, তাকে কী বলে ?

a) সৌর বছর

b) কসমিক ইয়ার

c) আলোক ইয়ার

d) পলিসার

Right Answer: b) কসমিক ইয়ার

Is Wireless Charging for Cars Finally Here?

Some time or another armadas of shared independent autos will carry travelers quickly around urban areas, getting them and dropping them off without the requirement for parking areas, carports, or even close to home vehicles. Be that as it may, without a spot to sit and charge, or an opportunity to do it while singular proprietors are grinding away or at home snoozing, in what capacity will these vehicles get the vitality they have to carry out their responsibilities? Who will bolster the robot autos?

 "There's nobody to connect them. There's no driver. They should have the option to go on request, charge themselves as the batteries get low," says Alex Gruzen, CEO of the Massachussetts-based remote charging organization WiTricity.

 In the course of the most recent eight years, WiTricity has moved its plan of action from shopper gadgets and telephone chargers to concentrate solely on the subject of how we control vehicles. The appropriate response, concurring Gruzen, highlights control transmitted through the air, by means of a framework incorporated with the cityscape. Toward that possible end, WiTricity has joined forces with BMW to discharge the principal buyer prepared remote charging framework for an electric vehicle.

 This sort of charging, which happens by means of a procedure called attractive reverberation, goes back to the mid 2000s, when Marin Soljačić, WiTricity's originator and a MIT material science teacher, chose to imagine a superior method to charge a telephone. He tried different things with a few different ways of moving vitality, including radio recurrence, ultrasound and even acceptance, before choosing attractive reverberation as the best blend of productivity and accommodation. He applied for a patent in 2006, which he eventually got in 2010, and began WiTricity in 2007 to enable the cell to telephone industry make the accusing mats perfect of certain telephones. (You can even get one from Tesla, however the organization has not yet declared any designs to charge their autos along these lines.)

 Reverberation isn't novel to electrical charging; it's a similar wonder that portrays the swaying of a youngster on a swing, and its progress to and fro among potential and active vitality. A parent pushing, or a child siphoning, can contribute vitality to the framework—yet just in the event that they move at the correct recurrence and the correct way. So also, an electromagnetic curl can move vitality to another, if they are in a similar direction and resound at a coordinating recurrence.

 As the years passed, WiTricity—the main licensee of the innovation—banded together with an ever increasing number of organizations to create it. Many were focused on buyer hardware, yet Toyota authorized it for the Prius half breed and in the long run put resources into WiTricity, and Honda, Hyundai, Nissan and GM all took a shot at models. BMW's 2018 530e iPerformance, however, is the first to hit the market, offering an extravagance bundle with a remote charging mat to German purchasers (with plans for discharge in the U.S., U.K., Japan, and China) at around 3,000 Euros.

 Be that as it may, the 530e is a half breed, brings up Dominique Bonte, a car industry examiner with ABI Research. It has a little, 9.2 kWh battery, one that can be charged in two or three hours by means of WiTricity innovation, yet has only a 16-mile go. Remote charging, even at the 90 percent productivity that WiTricity has had the option to accomplish, is still generally moderate. Take a gander at Tesla, for instance: A Model S accompanies either a 100 or a 75 kWh battery, and the WiTricity framework puts out something like 11 kW, which implies it could take a whole day to completely charge a Tesla. Along these lines, the organization has decided to concentrate on its Superchargers, which can convey an a lot quicker charge.

 All things considered, a move is going on in the automobile business, says Gruzen, thanks to some degree to VW's diesel vehicle emanations bamboozling embarrassment, the dropping expenses of batteries, and Tesla making EVs provocative. "Every one of these things meet up, and right now what you're seeing is an uncommon race among every one of the automakers to focus on a broadness of zapped stages," says Gruzen. "The market is taking off."

 WiTricity isn't as alone as their many licenses may recommend. (In 2014, the organization got a patent for the remote vitality move innovation in accordance with vehicles.) An organization called Plugless Power is making reseller's exchange charging mats, including an attractive coupler that gets introduced on an off-the-rack EV. What's more, Qualcomm's Halo utilizes an inductive charging much the same as that in a rotating brush that is practically like Witricity's rendition in spite of utilizing distinctive innovation, and is seeking after powerful charging to charge vehicles moving.

 However, it'll take more than automakers and their providers to get purchasers to change their conduct, the same number of the fears they have for electric vehicles are as yet present. Range nervousness has driven the push for greater batteries, and the requirement for fast charging. In any case, conveyed charging all through the cityscape could ease that, and government-ordered eliminating of ignition motors could compel the issue. "For us to truly bigly affect the earth, we need much something other than early adopters to purchase electric vehicles," says Gruzen. Furthermore, to do that, charging must be simpler than refueling. It'll begin with a tangle in your carport, he says, yet it'll end with attractive reverberation charging being incorporated into open leaving, taxi lines, and pretty much anyplace a vehicle can enjoy a reprieve for a fast "control nibble."

 Progressively significant is the city level, when armadas are shared and remote and self-sufficient, and when any personal time is lost business. WiTricity and Qualcomm are as of now working with SAE (know as the Society of Automotive Engineers) on a lot of worldwide principles that will enable vehicles from various makers to charge through various remote frameworks. This will even empower armadas to go about as battery banks, putting away vitality for the city and disseminating it back as power needs change for the duration of the day.